Statistical Analysis of Quantum State Learning Process in Quantum Neural Networks

Sketches that characterizes the statistical performance of QNNs on quantum state learning tasks.

Abstract

Quantum neural networks (QNNs) have been a promising framework in pursuing near-term quantum advantage in various fields, where many applications can be viewed as learning a quantum state that encodes useful data. As a quantum analog of probability distribution learning, quantum state learning is theoretically and practically essential in quantum machine learning. In this paper, we develop a no-go theorem for learning an unknown quantum state with QNNs even starting from a high-fidelity initial state. We prove that when the loss value is lower than a critical threshold, the probability of avoiding local minima vanishes exponentially with the qubit count, while only grows polynomially with the circuit depth. The curvature of local minima is concentrated to the quantum Fisher information times a loss-dependent constant, which characterizes the sensibility of the output state with respect to parameters in QNNs. These results hold for any circuit structures, initialization strategies, and work for both fixed ansatzes and adaptive methods. Extensive numerical simulations are performed to validate our theoretical results. Our findings place generic limits on good initial guesses and adaptive methods for improving the learnability and scalability of QNNs, and deepen the understanding of prior information’s role in QNNs.

Publication
arXiv:2309.14980
Chenghong Zhu
Chenghong Zhu
PhD Student

I obtained my BS and MS degrees in computer science from the University of Melbourne. My research interests include distributed quantum computing, quantum entanglement and quantum machine learning.

Mingrui Jing
Mingrui Jing
PhD Student

I obtained my BS and MS degrees in physics from the University of Melbourne. My research interests include distributed quantum computing, quantum entanglement and quantum machine learning.

Xin Wang
Xin Wang
Associate Professor

Prof. Xin Wang founded the QuAIR lab at HKUST(Guangzhou) in June 2023. His research primarily focuses on better understanding the limits of information processing with quantum systems and the power of quantum artificial intelligence. Prior to establishing the QuAIR lab, Prof. Wang was a Staff Researcher at the Institute for Quantum Computing at Baidu Research, where he concentrated on quantum computing research and the development of the Baidu Quantum Platform. Notably, he spearheaded the development of Paddle Quantum, a Python library designed for quantum machine learning. From 2018 to 2019, Prof. Wang held the position of Hartree Postdoctoral Fellow at the Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science (QuICS) at the University of Maryland, College Park. He earned his doctorate in quantum information from the University of Technology Sydney in 2018, under the guidance of Prof. Runyao Duan and Prof. Andreas Winter. In 2014, Prof. Wang obtained his B.S. in mathematics (with Wu Yuzhang Honor) from Sichuan University.