### Abstract

This paper systematically develops the resource theory of asymmetric distinguishability, as initiated roughly a decade ago [K. Matsumoto, arXiv:1010.1030 (2010)]. The key constituents of this resource theory are quantum boxes, consisting of a pair of quantum states, which can be manipulated for free by means of an arbitrary quantum channel. We introduce bits of asymmetric distinguishability as the basic currency in this resource theory, and we prove that it is a reversible resource theory in the asymptotic limit, with the quantum relative entropy being the fundamental rate of resource interconversion. The distillable distinguishability is the optimal rate at which a quantum box consisting of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) states can be converted to bits of asymmetric distinguishability, and the distinguishability cost is the optimal rate for the reverse transformation. Both of these quantities are equal to the quantum relative entropy. The exact one-shot distillable distinguishability is equal to the min-relative entropy, and the exact one-shot distinguishability cost is equal to the max-relative entropy. Generalizing these results, the approximate one-shot distillable distinguishability is equal to the smooth min-relative entropy, and the approximate one-shot distinguishability cost is equal to the smooth max-relative entropy. As a notable application of the former results, we prove that the optimal rate of asymptotic conversion from a pair of i.i.d. quantum states to another pair of i.i.d. quantum states is fully characterized by the ratio of their quantum relative entropies.

Publication

*Physical Review Research*

###### Associate Professor

Prof. Xin Wang founded the QuAIR lab at HKUST(Guangzhou) in June 2023. His research primarily focuses on better understanding the limits of information processing with quantum systems and the power of quantum artificial intelligence. Prior to establishing the QuAIR lab, Prof. Wang was a Staff Researcher at the Institute for Quantum Computing at Baidu Research, where he concentrated on quantum computing research and the development of the Baidu Quantum Platform. Notably, he spearheaded the development of Paddle Quantum, a Python library designed for quantum machine learning. From 2018 to 2019, Prof. Wang held the position of Hartree Postdoctoral Fellow at the Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science (QuICS) at the University of Maryland, College Park. He earned his doctorate in quantum information from the University of Technology Sydney in 2018, under the guidance of Prof. Runyao Duan and Prof. Andreas Winter. In 2014, Prof. Wang obtained his B.S. in mathematics (with Wu Yuzhang Honor) from Sichuan University.