### Abstract

We develop a resource theory of symmetric distinguishability, the fundamental objects of which are elementary quantum information sources, i.e. sources that emit one of two possible quantum states with given prior probabilities. Such a source can be represented by a classical-quantum state of a composite system XA , corresponding to an ensemble of two quantum states, with X being classical and A being quantum. We study the resource theory for two different classes of free operations: (i) CPTP A , which consists of quantum channels acting only on A , and (ii) conditional doubly stochastic maps acting on XA . We introduce the notion of symmetric distinguishability of an elementary source and prove that it is a monotone under both these classes of free operations. We study the tasks of distillation and dilution of symmetric distinguishability, both in the one-shot and asymptotic regimes. We prove that in the asymptotic regime, the optimal rate of converting one elementary source to another is equal to the ratio of their quantum Chernoff divergences, under both these classes of free operations. This imparts a new operational interpretation to the quantum Chernoff divergence. We also obtain interesting operational interpretations of the Thompson metric, in the context of the dilution of symmetric distinguishability.

Publication

*New Journal of Physics*

###### Associate Professor

Prof. Xin Wang founded the QuAIR lab at HKUST(Guangzhou) in June 2023. His research primarily focuses on better understanding the limits of information processing with quantum systems and the power of quantum artificial intelligence. Prior to establishing the QuAIR lab, Prof. Wang was a Staff Researcher at the Institute for Quantum Computing at Baidu Research, where he concentrated on quantum computing research and the development of the Baidu Quantum Platform. Notably, he spearheaded the development of Paddle Quantum, a Python library designed for quantum machine learning. From 2018 to 2019, Prof. Wang held the position of Hartree Postdoctoral Fellow at the Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science (QuICS) at the University of Maryland, College Park. He earned his doctorate in quantum information from the University of Technology Sydney in 2018, under the guidance of Prof. Runyao Duan and Prof. Andreas Winter. In 2014, Prof. Wang obtained his B.S. in mathematics (with Wu Yuzhang Honor) from Sichuan University.